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    Casino Technology. Sheriff Gaming. Card Games. Table Games. Old Slots. GreenTube Novomatic. TOP 3 France Casino. More casino. In the Pacific Northwest , wild salmon stocks, a main resident food source, have declined dramatically in recent years.

    In , the United States government listed the southern resident community as an endangered population under the Endangered Species Act.

    They do not breed outside of their community, which was once estimated at around animals and later shrank to around These deaths can be attributed to declines in Chinook salmon.

    Scientist Ken Balcomb has extensively studied killer whales since ; he is the research biologist responsible for discovering U. Navy sonar may harm killer whales.

    The whales seemed "agitated and were moving haphazardly, attempting to lift their heads free of the water" to escape the sound of the sonars. The sound originated from a U.

    Navy frigate 12 miles 19 kilometres distant, Balcomb said. Three years prior to Balcomb's discovery, research in the Bahamas showed 14 beaked whales washed up on the shore.

    These whales were beached on the day U. Navy destroyers were activated into sonar exercise. These six dead whales were studied, and CAT scans of two of the whale heads showed hemorrhaging around the brain and the ears, which is consistent with decompression sickness.

    Another conservation concern was made public in September when the Canadian government decided it was not necessary to enforce further protections including the Species at Risk Act in place to protect endangered animals along their habitats for killer whales aside from the laws already in place.

    In response to this decision, six environmental groups sued the federal government, claiming killer whales were facing many threats on the British Columbia Coast and the federal government did nothing to protect them from these threats.

    Underwater noise from shipping, drilling, and other human activities is a significant concern in some key killer whale habitats, including Johnstone Strait and Haro Strait.

    Killer whales also avoided the surrounding waters. Eleven members about half of one resident pod disappeared in the following year.

    The spill damaged salmon and other prey populations, which in turn damaged local killer whales. By , scientists estimated the AT1 transient population considered part of a larger population of transients , numbered only seven individuals and had not reproduced since the spill.

    This population is expected to die out. A study published in Science found that global killer whale populations are poised to dramatically decline due to exposure to toxic chemical and PCB pollution.

    The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast feature killer whales throughout their art , history, spirituality and religion. The Haida regarded killer whales as the most powerful animals in the ocean, and their mythology tells of killer whales living in houses and towns under the sea.

    According to these myths, they took on human form when submerged, and humans who drowned went to live with them.

    The Maritime Archaic people of Newfoundland also had great respect for killer whales, as evidenced by stone carvings found in a 4,year-old burial at the Port au Choix Archaeological Site.

    In the tales and beliefs of the Siberian Yupik people, killer whales are said to appear as wolves in winter, and wolves as killer whales in summer. In Western cultures , killer whales were historically feared as dangerous, savage predators.

    Of the very few confirmed attacks on humans by wild killer whales, none have been fatal. In the s, a surfer in California was bitten, and in , a boy in Alaska who was splashing in a region frequented by harbour seals was bumped by a killer whale that apparently misidentified him as prey.

    Competition with fishermen also led to killer whales being regarded as pests. In the waters of the Pacific Northwest and Iceland , the shooting of killer whales was accepted and even encouraged by governments.

    Navy claimed to have deliberately killed hundreds of killer whales in Icelandic waters in with machine guns, rockets, and depth charges.

    Western attitudes towards killer whales have changed dramatically in recent decades. In the mids and early s, killer whales came to much greater public and scientific awareness, starting with the first live-capture and display of a killer whale known as Moby Doll , a resident harpooned off Saturna Island in To the surprise of those who saw him, Moby Doll was a docile, non-aggressive whale who made no attempts to attack humans.

    Between and , 50 killer whales from the Pacific Northwest were captured for display in aquaria , and public interest in the animals grew.

    In the s, research pioneered by Michael Bigg led to the discovery of the species' complex social structure, its use of vocal communication, and its extraordinarily stable mother—offspring bonds.

    Through photo-identification techniques, individuals were named and tracked over decades. Bigg's techniques also revealed the Pacific Northwest population was in the low hundreds rather than the thousands that had been previously assumed.

    The public's growing appreciation also led to growing opposition to whale—keeping in aquarium. Only one whale has been taken in North American waters since In recent years, the extent of the public's interest in killer whales has manifested itself in several high-profile efforts surrounding individuals.

    Following the success of the film Free Willy , the movie's captive star Keiko was returned to the coast of his native Iceland in She became the first whale to be successfully reintegrated into a wild pod after human intervention, crystallizing decades of research into the vocal behaviour and social structure of the region's killer whales.

    However, his case was marked by controversy about whether and how to intervene, and in , Luna was killed by a boat propeller.

    The earlier of known records of commercial hunting of killer whales date to the 18th century in Japan. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the global whaling industry caught immense numbers of baleen and sperm whales, but largely ignored killer whales because of their limited amounts of recoverable oil , their smaller populations, and the difficulty of taking them.

    Between and , Japan took 1, killer whales although the Ministry of the Environment claims that there had been domestic catches of about 1, whales between late s to s [] and Norway took Other than commercial hunts, killer whales were hunted along Japanese coasts out of public concern for potential conflicts with fisheries.

    Such cases include a semi-resident male-female pair in Akashi Strait and Harimanada being killed in the Seto Inland Sea in , [] [] the killing of five whales from a pod of 11 members that swam into Tokyo Bay in , [] and a catch record in southern Taiwan in the s.

    Killer whales have helped humans hunting other whales. Whalers more often considered them a nuisance, however, as orcas would gather to scavenge meat from the whalers' catch.

    Whale watching continues to increase in popularity, but may have some problematic impacts on killer whales. Exposure to exhaust gasses from large amounts of vessel traffic are causing concern for the overall health of the 75 remaining southern resident killer whales SRKWs left as of early Air pollutants that bind with exhaust fumes are responsible for the activation of the cytochrome P 1A gene family.

    A direct correlation between activation of this gene and the air pollutants can not be made because there are other known factors that will induce the same gene.

    Vessels can have either wet or dry exhaust systems, with wet exhaust systems leaving more pollutants in the water due to various gas solubility.

    As a response to this, in boats off the British Columbia coast now have a minimum approach distance of metres compared to the previous metres.

    This new rule complements Washington State's minimum approach zone of metres that has been in effect since If a whale approaches a vessel it must be placed in neutral until the whale passes.

    The World Health Organization has set air quality standards in an effort to control the emissions produced by these vessels. The killer whale's intelligence , trainability, striking appearance, playfulness in captivity and sheer size have made it a popular exhibit at aquaria and aquatic theme parks.

    From to , 55 whales were taken from the wild in Iceland, 19 from Japan, and three from Argentina. These figures exclude animals that died during capture.

    Organizations such as World Animal Protection and the Whale and Dolphin Conservation campaign against the practice of keeping them in captivity.

    Captives have vastly reduced life expectancies, on average only living into their 20s. Wild males who survive infancy live 31 years on average, and up to 50—60 years.

    Critics claim captive life is stressful due to these factors and the requirement to perform circus tricks that are not part of wild killer whale behaviour, see above.

    A study coauthored by staff at SeaWorld and the Minnesota Zoo indicates that there is no significant difference in survivorship between free-ranging and captive killer whales.

    The authors speculate about the future utility of studying captive populations for the purposes of understanding orca biology and the implications of such research of captive animals in the overall health of both wild and marine park populations.

    As of March , SeaWorld has announced that they will be ending their orca breeding program and their theatrical shows.

    They previously announced, in November , that the shows would be coming to an end in San Diego but it is now to happen in both Orlando and San Antonio as well.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Orca. For other uses, see Orca disambiguation. Largest living species of dolphin.

    Size compared to a 1. Conservation status. Linnaeus , [4]. Orcinus citoniensis fossil, an extinct species of the same genus, Museo Capellini in Bologna.

    Modern orca skeleton, Naturalis , Leiden. A killer whale leaps out of the water when swimming—a behaviour known as porpoising, in Hood Canal.

    Tail-slapping in Vestfjorden , Norway. Resident fish-eating killer whales: The curved dorsal fins are typical of resident females.

    Comparison of the size of an average orca and an average great white shark. Multimedia relating to the orca. Killer whale calls. Killer whale calls at a distance.

    Vocalizations of a killer whale. See also: Whale sound. Main article: Cetacean intelligence. See also: Animal worship. Main article: Killer whale attacks on humans.

    See also: Killer whales in popular culture. Play media. Main article: Whaling. Main article: Captive killer whales. Cetaceans portal Mammals portal Marine life portal.

    In Wilson, D. M eds. Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved April 28, Retrieved February 15, Integrated Taxonomic Information System.

    Retrieved March 9, Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis.

    Tomus I in Latin. Laurentii Salvii. Mary's Church, Greifswald. Marine Mammal Science. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research.

    National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved July 30, Hobbs Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the eastern North Pacific and adjacent Arctic waters: a guide to their identification , p.

    Courier Dover Publications. Status of Killer Whales in Canada. Retrieved January 26, Journal of Cetacean Research and Management.

    Biological Reviews. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Marine mammals: evolutionary biology. Academic Press. UBC Press, Vancouver.

    Animal Behaviour. Nanaimo Daily News. Archived from the original on March 1, Retrieved December 4, NOAA Fisheries. Archived from the original on July 9, Retrieved August 15, Population structure and genetic variability in northeastern Pacific killer whales: Towards an assessment of population viability.

    Mammal Review. Retrieved February 23, Thomas P. Molecular Ecology. Growth and reproduction of killer whales, Orcinus orca , in Norwegian coastal waters.

    Reports of the International Whaling Commission. Archived from the original PDF on July 13, Science Alert. National Geographic.

    Retrieved April 12, January 5, Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved January 6, August 7, Polar Biology. Retrieved February 16, Biology Letters.

    Genome Research. New York Times. Bibcode : Natur. Killer whale biology: Morphology. Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved December 30, Vancouver Aquarium.

    Archived from the original on April 5, Retrieved March 23, Mammalian Species. Archived from the original PDF on January 18, American Cetacean Society.

    Fox News. April 23, Retrieved April 23, BBC News. Archived from the original on September 4, Retrieved September 14, Kasting, S.

    Adderly, T. Safford, K. Hewlett Spencer, T. Gornall, 3rd, and T. Poulter Respiratory and cardiac activity of killer whales.

    In Estes, James A. Whales, whaling and ocean ecosystems. Berkeley: University of California Press. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia.

    Stevens Whale and Dolphin Conservation. November 11, Archived from the original on October 20, Retrieved October 19, May 12—24, International Whaling Commission.

    Retrieved October 20, Asian Marine Biology. Retrieved December 24, Cascadia Research. August 16,

    An individual killer whale can often be identified from its dorsal fin and saddle patch. Variations such as nicks, scratches, and tears on the dorsal fin and the pattern of white or grey in the saddle patch are unique.

    Published directories contain identifying photographs and names for hundreds of North Pacific animals. Photographic identification has enabled the local population of killer whales to be counted each year rather than estimated, and has enabled great insight into life cycles and social structures.

    Occasionally a killer whale is white; they have been spotted in the northern Bering Sea and around St. Lawrence Island , and near the Russian coast.

    Burdin and Erich Hoyt , filmed an adult male nicknamed Iceberg. Killer whales have good eyesight above and below the water, excellent hearing, and a good sense of touch.

    They have exceptionally sophisticated echolocation abilities, detecting the location and characteristics of prey and other objects in the water by emitting clicks and listening for echoes, [68] as do other members of the dolphin family.

    Killer whales are found in all oceans and most seas. Due to their enormous range , numbers, and density, relative distribution is difficult to estimate, [72] but they clearly prefer higher latitudes and coastal areas over pelagic environments.

    Information for offshore regions and warmer waters is more scarce, but widespread sightings indicate that the killer whale can survive in most water temperatures.

    Recorded sightings have been made from almost the entire shoreline. However, a small year-round population is known to exist in the Strait of Gibraltar , mostly on the Atlantic side.

    In the Antarctic, killer whales range up to the edge of the pack ice and are believed to venture into the denser pack ice, finding open leads much like beluga whales in the Arctic.

    However, killer whales are merely seasonal visitors to Arctic waters, and do not approach the pack ice in the summer.

    With the rapid Arctic sea ice decline in the Hudson Strait , their range now extends deep into the northwest Atlantic.

    Migration patterns are poorly understood. Each summer, the same individuals appear off the coasts of British Columbia and Washington. Despite decades of research, where these animals go for the rest of the year remains unknown.

    Transient pods have been sighted from southern Alaska to central California. Worldwide population estimates are uncertain, but recent consensus suggests a minimum of 50, Killer whales are apex predators , meaning that they themselves have no natural predators.

    They are sometimes called the wolves of the sea, because they hunt in groups like wolf packs. Fish-eating killer whales prey on around 30 species of fish.

    Some populations in the Norwegian and Greenland sea specialize in herring and follow that fish's autumnal migration to the Norwegian coast.

    They then slap the ball with their tail flukes, stunning or killing up to 15 fish at a time, then eating them one by one.

    Carousel feeding has only been documented in the Norwegian killer whale population, as well as some oceanic dolphin species. In New Zealand , sharks and rays appear to be important prey, including eagle rays , long-tail and short-tail stingrays , common threshers , smooth hammerheads , blue sharks , basking sharks , and shortfin makos.

    Killer whales are very sophisticated and effective predators of marine mammals. Thirty-two cetacean species have been recorded as prey, from observing orcas' feeding activity, examining the stomach contents of dead orcas, and seeing scars on the bodies of surviving prey animals.

    Groups even attack larger cetaceans such as minke whales , grey whales , [] and, rarely, sperm whales or blue whales.

    Hunting a large whale usually takes several hours. Killer whales generally attack young or weak animals; however, a group of five or more may attack a healthy adult.

    When hunting a young whale, a group chases it and its mother to exhaustion. Eventually, they separate the pair and surround the calf, drowning it by keeping it from surfacing.

    Pods of female sperm whales sometimes protect themselves by forming a protective circle around their calves with their flukes facing outwards, using them to repel the attackers.

    Adult bull sperm whales, which are large, powerful and aggressive when threatened, and fully grown adult blue whales, which are possibly too large to overwhelm, are not believed to be prey for killer whales.

    Prior to the advent of industrial whaling , great whales may have been the major food source for killer whales. The introduction of modern whaling techniques may have aided killer whales by the sound of exploding harpoons indicating availability of prey to scavenge, and compressed air inflation of whale carcasses causing them to float, thus exposing them to scavenging.

    However, the devastation of great whale populations by unfettered whaling has possibly reduced their availability for killer whales, and caused them to expand their consumption of smaller marine mammals, thus contributing to the decline of these as well.

    Other marine mammal prey species include nearly 20 species of seal , sea lion and fur seal. Walruses and sea otters are less frequently taken. Often, to avoid injury, killer whales disable their prey before killing and eating it.

    This may involve throwing it in the air, slapping it with their tails, ramming it, or breaching and landing on it.

    Beaching, usually fatal to cetaceans, is not an instinctive behaviour, and can require years of practice for the young.

    This washes the prey into the water, where other killer whales lie in wait. Killer whales have also been observed preying on terrestrial mammals , such as deer swimming between islands off the northwest coast of North America.

    Killer whales in many areas may prey on cormorants and gulls. Four others then learned to copy the behaviour.

    Day-to-day killer whale behaviour generally consists of foraging , travelling, resting and socializing.

    Killer whales frequently engage in surface behaviour such as breaching jumping completely out of the water and tail-slapping.

    These activities may have a variety of purposes, such as courtship, communication, dislodging parasites , or play. Spyhopping is a behaviour in which a whale holds its head above water to view its surroundings.

    Killer whales are notable for their complex societies. Only elephants and higher primates live in comparably complex social structures.

    Resident killer whales in the eastern North Pacific live in particularly complex and stable social groups. Unlike any other known mammal social structure, resident whales live with their mothers for their entire lives.

    These family groups are based on matrilines consisting of the eldest female matriarch and her sons and daughters, and the descendants of her daughters, etc.

    The average size of a matriline is 5. These matrilineal groups are highly stable. Individuals separate for only a few hours at a time, to mate or forage.

    With one exception, a killer whale named Luna , no permanent separation of an individual from a resident matriline has been recorded.

    Closely related matrilines form loose aggregations called pods, usually consisting of one to four matrilines.

    Unlike matrilines, pods may separate for weeks or months at a time. Clan ranges overlap, mingling pods from different clans. Clans within a community do not share vocal patterns.

    Transient pods are smaller than resident pods, typically consisting of an adult female and one or two of her offspring.

    Males typically maintain stronger relationships with their mothers than other females. These bonds can extend well into adulthood.

    Unlike residents, extended or permanent separation of transient offspring from natal matrilines is common, with juveniles and adults of both sexes participating.

    Some males become "rovers" and do not form long-term associations, occasionally joining groups that contain reproductive females.

    Like all cetaceans , killer whales depend heavily on underwater sound for orientation, feeding, and communication. They produce three categories of sounds: clicks, whistles, and pulsed calls.

    Clicks are believed to be used primarily for navigation and discriminating prey and other objects in the surrounding environment, but are also commonly heard during social interactions.

    Northeast Pacific resident groups tend to be much more vocal than transient groups in the same waters. In contrast, the marine mammal prey of transients hear whale calls well.

    Transients are typically silent. Residents are silent only when resting. All members of a resident pod use similar calls, known collectively as a dialect.

    Dialects are composed of specific numbers and types of discrete, repetitive calls. They are complex and stable over time.

    Similarity in dialects likely reflects the degree of relatedness between pods, with variation growing over time.

    The use of both call types is called biphonation. The increased subset call types may be the distinguishing factor between pods and inter-pod relations.

    Dialects also distinguish types. All members of the North American west coast transient community express the same basic dialect, although minor regional variation in call types is evident.

    Preliminary research indicates offshore killer whales have group-specific dialects unlike those of residents and transients.

    Norwegian and Icelandic herring -eating orcas appear to have different vocalizations for activities like hunting.

    Killer whales have the second-heaviest brains among marine mammals [] after sperm whales , which have the largest brain of any animal.

    They can be trained in captivity and are often described as intelligent, [] [] although defining and measuring "intelligence" is difficult in a species whose environment and behavioural strategies are very different from those of humans.

    Killer whales imitate others, and seem to deliberately teach skills to their kin. Off the Crozet Islands , mothers push their calves onto the beach, waiting to pull the youngster back if needed.

    People who have interacted closely with killer whales offer numerous anecdotes demonstrating the whales' curiosity, playfulness, and ability to solve problems.

    Alaskan killer whales have not only learned how to steal fish from longlines , but have also overcome a variety of techniques designed to stop them, such as the use of unbaited lines as decoys.

    A researcher described what happened next:. It worked really well for a while. Then the whales split into two groups. It didn't even take them an hour to figure it out.

    They were so thrilled when they figured out what was going on, that we were playing games. They were breaching by the boats.

    In other anecdotes, researchers describe incidents in which wild killer whales playfully tease humans by repeatedly moving objects the humans are trying to reach, [] or suddenly start to toss around a chunk of ice after a human throws a snowball.

    The killer whale's use of dialects and the passing of other learned behaviours from generation to generation have been described as a form of animal culture.

    The complex and stable vocal and behavioural cultures of sympatric groups of killer whales Orcinus orca appear to have no parallel outside humans and represent an independent evolution of cultural faculties.

    Two species or populations are considered sympatric when they live in the same geographic area and thus regularly encounter one another.

    Female killer whales begin to mature at around the age of 10 and reach peak fertility around 20, [] experiencing periods of polyestrous cycling separated by non-cycling periods of three to 16 months.

    Females can often breed until age 40, followed by a rapid decrease in fertility. To avoid inbreeding , males mate with females from other pods.

    Gestation varies from 15 to 18 months. In resident pods, births occur at any time of year, although winter is the most common. According to observations in several regions, all male and female pod members participate in the care of the young.

    Males sexually mature at the age of 15, but do not typically reproduce until age Wild males live around 29 years on average, with a maximum of about 60 years.

    This would have made him up to 90 years old. Examination of his teeth indicated he died around age 35, [] but this method of age determination is now believed to be inaccurate for older animals.

    Infanticide , once thought to occur only in captive killer whales, was observed in wild populations by researchers off British Columbia on December 2, In this incident, an adult male killed the calf of a female within the same pod, with his mother also joining in the assault.

    It is theorized that the male killed the young calf in order to mate with its mother something that occurs in other carnivore species , while the male's mother supported the breeding opportunity for her son.

    The attack ended when the calf's mother struck and injured the attacking male. Such behaviour matches that of many smaller dolphin species, such as the bottlenose dolphin.

    In , the IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature changed its assessment of the killer whale's conservation status from conservation dependent to data deficient , recognizing that one or more killer whale types may actually be separate, endangered species.

    Like other animals at the highest trophic levels , the killer whale is particularly at risk of poisoning from bioaccumulation of toxins, including Polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs.

    When food is scarce, killer whales metabolize blubber for energy, which increases pollutant concentrations in their blood. In the Pacific Northwest , wild salmon stocks, a main resident food source, have declined dramatically in recent years.

    In , the United States government listed the southern resident community as an endangered population under the Endangered Species Act.

    They do not breed outside of their community, which was once estimated at around animals and later shrank to around These deaths can be attributed to declines in Chinook salmon.

    Scientist Ken Balcomb has extensively studied killer whales since ; he is the research biologist responsible for discovering U.

    Navy sonar may harm killer whales. The whales seemed "agitated and were moving haphazardly, attempting to lift their heads free of the water" to escape the sound of the sonars.

    The sound originated from a U. Navy frigate 12 miles 19 kilometres distant, Balcomb said. Three years prior to Balcomb's discovery, research in the Bahamas showed 14 beaked whales washed up on the shore.

    These whales were beached on the day U. Navy destroyers were activated into sonar exercise. These six dead whales were studied, and CAT scans of two of the whale heads showed hemorrhaging around the brain and the ears, which is consistent with decompression sickness.

    Another conservation concern was made public in September when the Canadian government decided it was not necessary to enforce further protections including the Species at Risk Act in place to protect endangered animals along their habitats for killer whales aside from the laws already in place.

    In response to this decision, six environmental groups sued the federal government, claiming killer whales were facing many threats on the British Columbia Coast and the federal government did nothing to protect them from these threats.

    Underwater noise from shipping, drilling, and other human activities is a significant concern in some key killer whale habitats, including Johnstone Strait and Haro Strait.

    Killer whales also avoided the surrounding waters. Eleven members about half of one resident pod disappeared in the following year. The spill damaged salmon and other prey populations, which in turn damaged local killer whales.

    By , scientists estimated the AT1 transient population considered part of a larger population of transients , numbered only seven individuals and had not reproduced since the spill.

    This population is expected to die out. A study published in Science found that global killer whale populations are poised to dramatically decline due to exposure to toxic chemical and PCB pollution.

    The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast feature killer whales throughout their art , history, spirituality and religion.

    The Haida regarded killer whales as the most powerful animals in the ocean, and their mythology tells of killer whales living in houses and towns under the sea.

    According to these myths, they took on human form when submerged, and humans who drowned went to live with them.

    The Maritime Archaic people of Newfoundland also had great respect for killer whales, as evidenced by stone carvings found in a 4,year-old burial at the Port au Choix Archaeological Site.

    In the tales and beliefs of the Siberian Yupik people, killer whales are said to appear as wolves in winter, and wolves as killer whales in summer.

    In Western cultures , killer whales were historically feared as dangerous, savage predators. Of the very few confirmed attacks on humans by wild killer whales, none have been fatal.

    In the s, a surfer in California was bitten, and in , a boy in Alaska who was splashing in a region frequented by harbour seals was bumped by a killer whale that apparently misidentified him as prey.

    Competition with fishermen also led to killer whales being regarded as pests. In the waters of the Pacific Northwest and Iceland , the shooting of killer whales was accepted and even encouraged by governments.

    Navy claimed to have deliberately killed hundreds of killer whales in Icelandic waters in with machine guns, rockets, and depth charges.

    Western attitudes towards killer whales have changed dramatically in recent decades. In the mids and early s, killer whales came to much greater public and scientific awareness, starting with the first live-capture and display of a killer whale known as Moby Doll , a resident harpooned off Saturna Island in To the surprise of those who saw him, Moby Doll was a docile, non-aggressive whale who made no attempts to attack humans.

    Between and , 50 killer whales from the Pacific Northwest were captured for display in aquaria , and public interest in the animals grew.

    In the s, research pioneered by Michael Bigg led to the discovery of the species' complex social structure, its use of vocal communication, and its extraordinarily stable mother—offspring bonds.

    Through photo-identification techniques, individuals were named and tracked over decades. Bigg's techniques also revealed the Pacific Northwest population was in the low hundreds rather than the thousands that had been previously assumed.

    The public's growing appreciation also led to growing opposition to whale—keeping in aquarium. Only one whale has been taken in North American waters since In recent years, the extent of the public's interest in killer whales has manifested itself in several high-profile efforts surrounding individuals.

    Following the success of the film Free Willy , the movie's captive star Keiko was returned to the coast of his native Iceland in She became the first whale to be successfully reintegrated into a wild pod after human intervention, crystallizing decades of research into the vocal behaviour and social structure of the region's killer whales.

    However, his case was marked by controversy about whether and how to intervene, and in , Luna was killed by a boat propeller.

    The earlier of known records of commercial hunting of killer whales date to the 18th century in Japan. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the global whaling industry caught immense numbers of baleen and sperm whales, but largely ignored killer whales because of their limited amounts of recoverable oil , their smaller populations, and the difficulty of taking them.

    Between and , Japan took 1, killer whales although the Ministry of the Environment claims that there had been domestic catches of about 1, whales between late s to s [] and Norway took Other than commercial hunts, killer whales were hunted along Japanese coasts out of public concern for potential conflicts with fisheries.

    Such cases include a semi-resident male-female pair in Akashi Strait and Harimanada being killed in the Seto Inland Sea in , [] [] the killing of five whales from a pod of 11 members that swam into Tokyo Bay in , [] and a catch record in southern Taiwan in the s.

    Killer whales have helped humans hunting other whales. Whalers more often considered them a nuisance, however, as orcas would gather to scavenge meat from the whalers' catch.

    Whale watching continues to increase in popularity, but may have some problematic impacts on killer whales. Exposure to exhaust gasses from large amounts of vessel traffic are causing concern for the overall health of the 75 remaining southern resident killer whales SRKWs left as of early Air pollutants that bind with exhaust fumes are responsible for the activation of the cytochrome P 1A gene family.

    A direct correlation between activation of this gene and the air pollutants can not be made because there are other known factors that will induce the same gene.

    Vessels can have either wet or dry exhaust systems, with wet exhaust systems leaving more pollutants in the water due to various gas solubility. As a response to this, in boats off the British Columbia coast now have a minimum approach distance of metres compared to the previous metres.

    This new rule complements Washington State's minimum approach zone of metres that has been in effect since If a whale approaches a vessel it must be placed in neutral until the whale passes.

    The World Health Organization has set air quality standards in an effort to control the emissions produced by these vessels.

    The killer whale's intelligence , trainability, striking appearance, playfulness in captivity and sheer size have made it a popular exhibit at aquaria and aquatic theme parks.

    From to , 55 whales were taken from the wild in Iceland, 19 from Japan, and three from Argentina. These figures exclude animals that died during capture.

    Organizations such as World Animal Protection and the Whale and Dolphin Conservation campaign against the practice of keeping them in captivity.

    Captives have vastly reduced life expectancies, on average only living into their 20s. Wild males who survive infancy live 31 years on average, and up to 50—60 years.

    Critics claim captive life is stressful due to these factors and the requirement to perform circus tricks that are not part of wild killer whale behaviour, see above.

    A study coauthored by staff at SeaWorld and the Minnesota Zoo indicates that there is no significant difference in survivorship between free-ranging and captive killer whales.

    The authors speculate about the future utility of studying captive populations for the purposes of understanding orca biology and the implications of such research of captive animals in the overall health of both wild and marine park populations.

    As of March , SeaWorld has announced that they will be ending their orca breeding program and their theatrical shows. They previously announced, in November , that the shows would be coming to an end in San Diego but it is now to happen in both Orlando and San Antonio as well.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Orca. For other uses, see Orca disambiguation.

    Largest living species of dolphin. Size compared to a 1. Conservation status. Linnaeus , [4]. Orcinus citoniensis fossil, an extinct species of the same genus, Museo Capellini in Bologna.

    Modern orca skeleton, Naturalis , Leiden. A killer whale leaps out of the water when swimming—a behaviour known as porpoising, in Hood Canal.

    Tail-slapping in Vestfjorden , Norway. Resident fish-eating killer whales: The curved dorsal fins are typical of resident females.

    Comparison of the size of an average orca and an average great white shark. Multimedia relating to the orca. Killer whale calls.

    Killer whale calls at a distance. Vocalizations of a killer whale. See also: Whale sound. Main article: Cetacean intelligence. See also: Animal worship.

    Main article: Killer whale attacks on humans. See also: Killer whales in popular culture. Play media.

    Main article: Whaling. Main article: Captive killer whales. Cetaceans portal Mammals portal Marine life portal.

    In Wilson, D. M eds. Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved April 28, Retrieved February 15, Integrated Taxonomic Information System.

    Retrieved March 9, Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis.

    Tomus I in Latin. Laurentii Salvii. Mary's Church, Greifswald. Marine Mammal Science. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research.

    National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved July 30, Hobbs Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the eastern North Pacific and adjacent Arctic waters: a guide to their identification , p.

    Courier Dover Publications. Status of Killer Whales in Canada. Retrieved January 26, Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. Biological Reviews.

    Canadian Journal of Zoology. Marine mammals: evolutionary biology. Academic Press. UBC Press, Vancouver. Animal Behaviour. Nanaimo Daily News.

    Archived from the original on March 1, Retrieved December 4, NOAA Fisheries. Archived from the original on July 9, Retrieved August 15, Population structure and genetic variability in northeastern Pacific killer whales: Towards an assessment of population viability.

    Mammal Review. Retrieved February 23, Thomas P. Molecular Ecology. Growth and reproduction of killer whales, Orcinus orca , in Norwegian coastal waters.

    Reports of the International Whaling Commission. Archived from the original PDF on July 13, Science Alert. National Geographic. Retrieved April 12, January 5, Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved January 6, August 7, Polar Biology.

    Retrieved February 16, Biology Letters. Genome Research. New York Times. Bibcode : Natur. Killer whale biology: Morphology.

    Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved December 30, Vancouver Aquarium. Archived from the original on April 5, Retrieved March 23, Mammalian Species.

    Archived from the original PDF on January 18, American Cetacean Society. Fox News. April 23, Retrieved April 23, BBC News.

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