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    As a standard feature, the low-pressure regulators are equipped with a safety diaphragm and may also be provided with a low pressure cut off. The low-pressure regulators are approved up to 0.

    All our medium -pressure regulators are equipped with a safety shut-off valve. The medium -pressure regulators with a safety diaphragm are approved up to an inlet pressure of 1 bar or 4 bar, the medium -pressure regulators with a relief valve are approved up to an inlet pressure of 1 bar, 4 bar, 6 bar or 10 bar.

    All our low and medium -pressure governors and regulators up to 4 bar inlet pressure meet the requirements of firesafe approval according to VP As a result of the design, all low and medium -pressure regulators have an approved inlet pressure resistance of up to 16 bar.

    Low Pressures Regulators. Medium Pressures Regulators. Displacement Meters. Flow Meters. Volume Correctors and Flowcomputers.

    Gas Pressure Regulators Elster gas pressure regulators and governors are spring loaded and equipped with a safety diaphragm and relief valve. The one -arm design of the governors makes them highly flexible.

    HR Domestic Service Regulators HR series of service regulators for use with several meters in small, medium and large consumption units. Installation is via special co -axial connectors.

    A thermal shut-off valve is avail- able especially for indoor installations. The modular concept of the regulator makes a wide variety of connections possible, e.

    Features include: safety diaphragm, built-in safety shut-off valve, optional low-pressure cut off valve with manual or automatic reset, optional relief valve, fire resistant optional.

    Excellent outlet pressure control. MR Medium -Pressure Regulator MR series of medium -pressure regulators available in flanged and threaded versions for domestic, commercial or industrial use.

    Low-pressure cut off is optional 1 bar version. It opens the inlet pressure range up to io bar and is known for excellent regulation and lock- up behaviour as well as easy maintenance.

    The MR PN10 series is suitable for industrial applica- tions and small stations. Positive Displacement Meters. Diaphragm Meters Diaphragm meters are displacement meters where the flow channels are designed to guarantee optimum flow conditions and a low pressure loss.

    They are suitable for measuring natural gas and a variety of technical gases at up to 0. The diaphragm meters BK-G1. The measuring unit operates on the principle of pneumatic control.

    This guarantees low noise, long-term stability and high accuracy and allows the possibility of including mechanical temperature correction TC. This guarantees low noise, long-term stability and high accuracy.

    Industrial Diaphragm Meters, BK-G40 to G The BK-G40 to G meters come in a bolted steel housing, are available in co -axial and two -pipe versions and the installation can either be with horizontal or vertical connections.

    The G measuring unit operates on the principle of the fixed measuring chamber. This guarantees long-term stability and high accuracy.

    The housing is made of aluminium or spheroidal graphite iron. The spheroidal graphite iron ver- sions are firesafe up to a pressure of 4 bar.

    The bearings are lubricated with oil. Two low- frequency pulsers come as standard and a high- frequency pulser can be supplied on request.

    The compact versions G10 to G25 with aluminium housings are used mainly in commercial applications and are ideal for cabinets with restricted space available.

    The meters are designed for pressures up to 12 bar psig. Laboratory Gas Meters, Wet and Dry Versions Wet and dry laboratory gas meters are high -precision metering devices with a round scale display and resettable counters.

    The wet version is available in seven sizes and in special versions for aggressive media or operating pressures up to bar.

    All laboratory gas meters can be fitted with pulsers on request. The incoming gas is accelerated through the inlet body and strikes the blades of the turbine wheel.

    The revolutions of the turbine wheel are transferred to an 8 -digit roller counter via a multi -stage gear and a magnetic coupling.

    Turbine meters are used for official metering and billing purposes custody transfer. Ouantometers are short -pattern turbine meters with a length of 1.

    From a metering point of view and in terms of materials, both types of meters are suitable for use with combustible gases in the field of energy supply as well as with a variety of technical gases in industrial applications.

    The housing is made of spheroidal graphite iron, cast steel or welded steel, depending on the pressure rate. Several versions of the turbine meters are available.

    Two low -frequency pulsers and a tamper detection system come as standard. High -frequency pulsers are also available on request.

    Product specification according European Standard EN Q Quantometers The flanged housing of the Q Quantometers is made of spheroidal graphite iron, cast steel or welded steel, depending on the pressure rate.

    The Q Quanto- meters are available in a variety of diameters and pressure ratings. Depending on the ver- sion, the volume is displayed on a mechanical QA or an electronic totalizer QAe.

    The Quantometers are available in a number of flow ranges, diameters and pressure ratings. Depending on the version, a low or medium -frequency pulser and an optical or M -bus output is avaliable.

    For special industrial applications, stainless steel versions are also available. Encoder index for Turbine and Rotary Meters Mechanical roller index with opto-electronic reading of the totalizer.

    Data transfer to subsequent devices for fiscal metering via serial interface. Model for Elster turbine and rotary gas meters as well as retrofit model for any meter with standardized mechanical drive according to EN USM Ultrasonic Meters Elster ultrasonic meters are suitable for measuring natural gas, nitrogen, biogas and compressed air.

    The USM has a special two -channel metering path configuration and this means that it is completely unaffected by any flow disturbances.

    The The standard pulse outputs enable the device to be integrated easily into the [IS energy data system.

    System Volume Correctors These volume correctors are system volume correctors. They have an additional data storage function for actual and standard volume, pressure and temperature values.

    The stored data can be read out and processed with the help of the components of the LIS long-term information system p. EK Volume Corrector This is a compact battery -operated volume corrector for all kinds of standard applications.

    Compressibility is used as a constant value. The EK can be mounted onto a wall or a gas meter. EK System Volume Corrector This is a volume corrector with a built-in data -storage function for meter readings as well as average values of pressure, temperature, correction factor and supercompressibility for up to 2 months with an hourly storage interval.

    EK System Volume Corrector This is a volume corrector with a built-in data -storage function for meter readings as well as average values of pressure, temperature, correction factor and supercompressibility for up to 9 months with an hourly storage interval.

    Flowcomputer gas -net Fl Energy Flowcomputer Energy flowcomputer with integrated data logger function. The El can be combined with a number of different intrinsically -safe temperature and pressure sensors.

    Station controlling gas -net M1 Station Computer The gas -net M1 systems can handle a wide variety of control and automation functions in a gas station.

    The devices can also be fitted with a telephone modem in order to transfer signals and measurement data to a control center. This anables a combination of functions in one device.

    Long -Term Information System LIS The LIS long-term information system is a cost-effective way of collecting data in the fields of gas, water, district heating and electricity supply.

    It can be used both for systems analysis and for billing purposes. The LIS components provide the ideal solutions to meet the requirements of data collection on site, data transfer, processing and evaluation.

    It counts the pulses from gas, water, heat or electricity meters and stores them at pre-programmed intervals. If the interval is one hour, then 6 months worth of data can be stored.

    Besides this data, end -of -month readings and readings at the time of the readout can also be stored or made available for transfer. Special functions such as adding up volumes, monitoring error limits and tariff switching extend the use of the data logger beyond mere data storage.

    In conjunc- tion with our range of services, it can easily be connected to already -installed meters and integrated to support your existing billing system.

    The trans- ponder adds the pulses, generates the counter readings and transmits them automatically via radio signals to a data con- centrator.

    One concentrator can store the data from up to transponders. The data is then called up via modem by our software and can be transferred to a database.

    Transponder ET Transponder A radio module which can be fitted to any meter with a potential -free relay or pulse output for collecting end -of -month meter readings, for use with electricity, water, district heating, compressed air and gas meters.

    Data Concentrator. ELM Data Concentrator These devices collect and store data transmitted by the transponders end -of -month, middle -of -month and current readings.

    They collect data from electricity, water, district heating, compressed air and gas meters as well as from electronic heat cost allocators from some manufacturers.

    ER Receiver These devices receive transmitted data from radio modules and forward it via an internal bus to a data concentrator. The device is also used for transferring the data to the control center for analysis.

    This is all done via a laptop computer on site or via telephone networks. Different possibilities for a remote access to devices in gas stations.

    To allow the use of all kinds of standard modems available on the market, alternatively an RS serial interface board can be installed, where the external modem can be connected.

    FE Function Extension Providing data communication for the EK and EK volume correctors when they are installed in a gas station with no power supply or telephone connection is the main rea- son for using the FE function extension unit.

    The FE includes a GSM data radio modem for data communication via public mobile telephone networks. The antenna for the modem is built into the housing of the device.

    In order to optimise the battery life, a time span can be programmed within which the modem is activated and the data can be called up.

    WinLOOK makes it easy for the user to view the archive data from the devices in both tabular and graphical form and it is not necessary to have a database in order to do so.

    WinLOOK is, therefore, suitable for use as a diagnostic tool in the event of system errors. The program processes meter readings, consumption data, analog metering data and specific events and then stores the information for the purpose of any further evaluation.

    To do this, WinVIEW offers a variety of graphics and print-outs as well as a high level of flexibility in data transfer. The user interface is freely configurable and the software functions along the lines of Microsoft Office.

    It is ideal for the administration of data from a number of metering points. On top of this, the use of the software within a network is controlled by a user administration system which can issue different rights of access for processing the data.

    Elster Test Rig Technology. Nowadays, low-pressure test rigs are required to be as flexible as possible while at the same time maintaining the highest accuracy and the shortest test times possible.

    Our test rigs meet these requirements in every respect. Master meters operating with sonic nozzles provide the highest level of long-term stability and precision available in the field of generating flow conditions and registering volume.

    On top of this, by combining different nozzles it is possible in a very short time to adjust the flow rate for the test run.

    This means that the typical disadvantages of conventional test rigs with low flow rates, e. Gas meter test rigs involve a technical competence which goes far beyond the simple assembly of products.

    In many countries throughout the world, from China to Poland and Canada to Argentina, Elster and Kromschr5der are involved in the field of testing and are reputable partners and consultants of metrological institutes, gas suppliers and manufacturers.

    Our rigs are customized to fulfill the specific needs of the customer. Our supply ranges from individual master meters to complete test rig systems.

    Sales Organization Worldwide. Rucci Valentin Alsina Pcia. Cajon Postal , La Paz. Avenida 68 No. Iran Pillary Company Limited P. Box Tehran Italy Elkro gas s.

    Seoul Latvia Ambersgs. Range of products and services. About us Elster range of products and services.

    The demand for energy is growing, yet on the other hand, high targets to reduce global CO2 emissions are being set. Shale gas is changing the global gas flow, new pipelines have been built or are under construction and are being connected to new LNG terminals.

    The number of gas-fired power plants is growing every year. The basis for all these requirements are reliable, highend products and system solutions.

    Elster, the worldwide market leader for state-of-the-art gas measurement and regulation and electronic systems, offers a very wide range of products and solutions including complex installations with data transfer systems.

    On a global gas market we are meeting the broadest variety of technical or customerspecific requirements. A wide spectrum of after-sales products such as on-site meter diagnostics, long-term maintenance and inspection contracts and technical hotlines are completing our product portfolio.

    Our target is to be the best gas measurement and gas safety control company in the world — to support your needs. Gas measurement and control Elster range of products and services.

    For over years we have had a major bearing on developments in gas measuring and control equipment. Tailored to your specific requirements, as individual components or as a complete system.

    Industrial companies, trading companies and energy suppliers value Elster-Instromet as a reliable partner. We fulfil these requirements with high-quality products, measurement solutions and madeto-measure services, as well as a number of service support points, sales outlets and production sites worldwide.

    Enivronmental manufacture, energy-saving operation ensuring a long service life, combined with the greatest possible degree of.

    Thanks to intensive research and development, we are creating future-oriented solutions. Thus we confirm our position as a worldwide market leader, and we carry our customers with us to economic success.

    Smart metering Elster range of products and services. Smart metering Metered for the future. Meter reading whenever you want it — quick, flexible and convenient by remote data transfer.

    Smart measuring equipment from Elster makes it possible. Elster offers energy suppliers an extensive range of products for all consumption data recording tasks for residential residential as well as commercial and industrial applications.

    To promote the protection of the environment, European countries aim to preserve energy resources.

    Consumers should be aware of and regularly informed of their energy consumption. The consumer is thus able to systematically gain energy awareness and reduce energy costs.

    With innovative Elster gas meters for smart metering systems, automated meter reading is possible at any time, for example when moving house or changing supplier.

    Energy suppliers benefit from the highest possible level of flexibility. There is no longer the need to visit the customers or make estimations in the event of price alterations.

    Moreover, they are already satisfying the legal framework conditions which state that energy consumption is to be made transparent and readout and billing intervals are to be made shorter.

    For the attraction of being able to change the personal use of energy sustainably is much greater than in the case of annual consumption billing.

    For communication purposes, the AE may be supplemented with various communication modules, which allow for cable-based or wireless data transfer and which contain a battery.

    The diaphragm gas meter with AE index derives its energy from the mains pressure and thus operates independently of external energy supply.

    Being incorporated into a data management system, the diaphragm gas meter with Absolute ENCODER presents an ideal basis for a smart meter infrastructure.

    The electronic index is a smart option for implementing smart metering for diaphragm gas meters. It offers the possibility of querying historical data, displaying tariffs and switching an optionally integrated valve.

    The modular design allows the communication equipment to be retrofitted or the batteries to be changed even while it is installed. A universal and open interface concept, the Universal Metering Interface UMI , has been developed for connecting the communication modules to the meter.

    This allows the gas meter to be fitted or retrofitted with a communication module under economic conditions. UMI may be universally implemented in measuring.

    Regarding encryption, authentication and authorization UMI satisfies the most stringent security requirements The data is usually read out via a wireless or a cable-based connection.

    Using Internet-based applications, it is possible for both energy suppliers and consumers to check the current daily, monthly and annual meter readings.

    A smart extension to proven technology As an extension to the purely mechanical diaphragm gas meters, which have been proving their worth for decades, there are numerous variants available for smart gas metering and remote gas data transfer.

    The data is then continually transferred as a data word via a digital interface to the connected communication modules, whereby permanent data transfer security is guaranteed compared with the conventional transfer of pulses.

    Electronic index themis The electronic index themis for diaphragm gas meters offers a display and further functions such as local and remote communication, tariffs, load profiles, valve control, data logging, and software update.

    A wide range of communications solutions are available for the themis index, which guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data transferred between the communications partners and also allow granting authorization to users.

    A secure, remotely controlled software update and the modular principle guarantee that the technology is future-proof and that it can be adjusted to meet new challenges retrospectively at low cost if necessary.

    Different variants of the electronic index are available: themis-alpha, themis-plus, and themis-log. The indexes are supplied ready-configured, thus vastly reducing installation work.

    Valve Ve By replacing conventional diaphragm gas meters, smart meters with additional functionality can be used, e.

    This significantly reduces the costs and labour caused by consumers in default of payment. The integrated valve in the diaphragm gas meter allows the gas supply to be remotely connected and disconnected.

    The advantages are obvious: no batteries in the metrologyrelevant part of the meter, absolute meter readings, simple installation without additional costs involved in parameter setting, and an index whose service life corresponds to that of the meter.

    Elster is looking forward to being a reliable partner for you for future innovative product solutions. Gas pressure regulation Elster range of products and services.

    Gas pressure regulation Strong in performance and quality — Elster gas pressure regulators meet the highest demands for domestic, commercial and industrial gas supply.

    Gas pressure regulators meet the highest demands concerning quality and capacity. A comprehensive range of gas pressure regulators from low pressure PN 0.

    The applications range from low-capacity residential use for individual households, commercial and industrial uses up to the field of gas transmission where it is necessary to control high flow capacities.

    A large variety of safety features is available for all of the different pressure levels. In the mediumpressure range, the devices can have integrated safety shut-off valves or relief valves.

    Separate safety shut-off valves and relief valves are also available for high-pressure applications. J42 meter service regulator The J42 is an angled type meter service regulator for low-pressure domestic applications.

    It is available with or without an integrated low-pressure cut-off valve, which has an automatic reset. J78 domestic service regulator The J78 range is a compact, accurate and economical regulator.

    It is suitable for a wide range of commercial and industrial applications, including such OEM equipment as boiler and burner trains.

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    De theorie verklaart het ontstaan van het Nauw van Calais, maar roept allerlei vragen op die vooralsnog onbeantwoord blijven. De meningen van de verschillende onderzoekers zijn dan ook verdeeld over de vraag of het werkelijk zo is gegaan.

    Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie. Naamruimten Artikel Overleg. Weergaven Lezen Bewerken Brontekst bewerken Geschiedenis. Gebruikersportaal Snelcursus Hulp en contact Donaties.

    Links naar deze pagina Verwante wijzigingen Bestand uploaden Speciale pagina's Permanente koppeling Paginagegevens Deze pagina citeren Wikidata-item.

    English Koppelingen bewerken. Zie voor meer informatie het artikel isostasie Effect van ijstijden. Hasaerts , The Sangatte raised beach and the age of the opening of the Strait of Dover.

    Geologie en Mijnbouw, Packman, A. Grün , Quaternary Research, Quaternary International, Proefschrift, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden.

    Glacial deposits in North-West Europe. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. Quaternary and Glacial Geology. John Wiley, Chichester, pp.

    Pre-Weichselian glaciations of North-west Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews Wansa , Elsterian and Saalian deposits in their type area in central Germany.

    In: J. Ehlers et al. Balkema, Rotterdam , The history of the great northwest European rivers during the past three million years.

    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B. The formation of the Strait of Dover. In: R,C. Preece ed. Europe cut adrift. Nature, Mindel-Vereisung und störzeitlicher Meeresspiegel.

    Meyniana, 5: Tunnel valleys. In: Ehlers, J. Pfeil, München. Catastrophic flooding origin of shelf valley systems in the English Channel.

    A first attempt to date the original "Deckenschotter" of Penck and Brückner with cosmogenic nuclides. Quaternary International, — 33— Geologisches Jahrbuch A, The glacial history of the Netherlands.

    The Saalian glaciation in the Dutch part of the North Sea. The type region of the Saalian and the Elsterian glaciation in the area between the rivers Saale and Elbe.

    Schirmer Ed. Aminostratigraphy of the Netherlands. International Conference, University of Cambridge, april 4th Abstracts pp. Malacological evidence relating to the insularity of the British Isles during the Quaternary.

    In Island Britain: a Quaternary perspective. Preece, R. Geological Society Special Publication No. Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart, De ondergrond van Nederland.

    Geologie van Nederland, 7: pp. On the drift at Sangatte cliff near Calais. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 7: Additional observations on the raised beach of Sangatte with reference to the date of the English Channel, and the presence of loess in the cliff section.

    Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, Holst, R. Vissers, H. Pagnier and D. Postma , Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, A catastrophic origin for the palaeovalley system of the eastern English Channel.

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    Arsen in Lebensmitteln 1. Kommen bestimmt mal wieder. Elstern nutzen einen Komposthaufen als besonders beliebte Nahrungsquelle. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies.

    On top of this, by combining different nozzles it is possible in a very short time to adjust the flow rate for the test run. This means that the typical disadvantages of conventional test rigs with low flow rates, e.

    Gas meter test rigs involve a technical competence which goes far beyond the simple assembly of products. In many countries throughout the world, from China to Poland and Canada to Argentina, Elster and Kromschr5der are involved in the field of testing and are reputable partners and consultants of metrological institutes, gas suppliers and manufacturers.

    Our rigs are customized to fulfill the specific needs of the customer. Our supply ranges from individual master meters to complete test rig systems.

    Sales Organization Worldwide. Rucci Valentin Alsina Pcia. Cajon Postal , La Paz. Avenida 68 No. Iran Pillary Company Limited P.

    Box Tehran Italy Elkro gas s. Seoul Latvia Ambersgs. Range of products and services. About us Elster range of products and services. The demand for energy is growing, yet on the other hand, high targets to reduce global CO2 emissions are being set.

    Shale gas is changing the global gas flow, new pipelines have been built or are under construction and are being connected to new LNG terminals.

    The number of gas-fired power plants is growing every year. The basis for all these requirements are reliable, highend products and system solutions.

    Elster, the worldwide market leader for state-of-the-art gas measurement and regulation and electronic systems, offers a very wide range of products and solutions including complex installations with data transfer systems.

    On a global gas market we are meeting the broadest variety of technical or customerspecific requirements. A wide spectrum of after-sales products such as on-site meter diagnostics, long-term maintenance and inspection contracts and technical hotlines are completing our product portfolio.

    Our target is to be the best gas measurement and gas safety control company in the world — to support your needs. Gas measurement and control Elster range of products and services.

    For over years we have had a major bearing on developments in gas measuring and control equipment. Tailored to your specific requirements, as individual components or as a complete system.

    Industrial companies, trading companies and energy suppliers value Elster-Instromet as a reliable partner. We fulfil these requirements with high-quality products, measurement solutions and madeto-measure services, as well as a number of service support points, sales outlets and production sites worldwide.

    Enivronmental manufacture, energy-saving operation ensuring a long service life, combined with the greatest possible degree of.

    Thanks to intensive research and development, we are creating future-oriented solutions. Thus we confirm our position as a worldwide market leader, and we carry our customers with us to economic success.

    Smart metering Elster range of products and services. Smart metering Metered for the future. Meter reading whenever you want it — quick, flexible and convenient by remote data transfer.

    Smart measuring equipment from Elster makes it possible. Elster offers energy suppliers an extensive range of products for all consumption data recording tasks for residential residential as well as commercial and industrial applications.

    To promote the protection of the environment, European countries aim to preserve energy resources. Consumers should be aware of and regularly informed of their energy consumption.

    The consumer is thus able to systematically gain energy awareness and reduce energy costs. With innovative Elster gas meters for smart metering systems, automated meter reading is possible at any time, for example when moving house or changing supplier.

    Energy suppliers benefit from the highest possible level of flexibility. There is no longer the need to visit the customers or make estimations in the event of price alterations.

    Moreover, they are already satisfying the legal framework conditions which state that energy consumption is to be made transparent and readout and billing intervals are to be made shorter.

    For the attraction of being able to change the personal use of energy sustainably is much greater than in the case of annual consumption billing.

    For communication purposes, the AE may be supplemented with various communication modules, which allow for cable-based or wireless data transfer and which contain a battery.

    The diaphragm gas meter with AE index derives its energy from the mains pressure and thus operates independently of external energy supply. Being incorporated into a data management system, the diaphragm gas meter with Absolute ENCODER presents an ideal basis for a smart meter infrastructure.

    The electronic index is a smart option for implementing smart metering for diaphragm gas meters. It offers the possibility of querying historical data, displaying tariffs and switching an optionally integrated valve.

    The modular design allows the communication equipment to be retrofitted or the batteries to be changed even while it is installed.

    A universal and open interface concept, the Universal Metering Interface UMI , has been developed for connecting the communication modules to the meter.

    This allows the gas meter to be fitted or retrofitted with a communication module under economic conditions. UMI may be universally implemented in measuring.

    Regarding encryption, authentication and authorization UMI satisfies the most stringent security requirements The data is usually read out via a wireless or a cable-based connection.

    Using Internet-based applications, it is possible for both energy suppliers and consumers to check the current daily, monthly and annual meter readings.

    A smart extension to proven technology As an extension to the purely mechanical diaphragm gas meters, which have been proving their worth for decades, there are numerous variants available for smart gas metering and remote gas data transfer.

    The data is then continually transferred as a data word via a digital interface to the connected communication modules, whereby permanent data transfer security is guaranteed compared with the conventional transfer of pulses.

    Electronic index themis The electronic index themis for diaphragm gas meters offers a display and further functions such as local and remote communication, tariffs, load profiles, valve control, data logging, and software update.

    A wide range of communications solutions are available for the themis index, which guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data transferred between the communications partners and also allow granting authorization to users.

    A secure, remotely controlled software update and the modular principle guarantee that the technology is future-proof and that it can be adjusted to meet new challenges retrospectively at low cost if necessary.

    Different variants of the electronic index are available: themis-alpha, themis-plus, and themis-log. The indexes are supplied ready-configured, thus vastly reducing installation work.

    Valve Ve By replacing conventional diaphragm gas meters, smart meters with additional functionality can be used, e. This significantly reduces the costs and labour caused by consumers in default of payment.

    The integrated valve in the diaphragm gas meter allows the gas supply to be remotely connected and disconnected.

    The advantages are obvious: no batteries in the metrologyrelevant part of the meter, absolute meter readings, simple installation without additional costs involved in parameter setting, and an index whose service life corresponds to that of the meter.

    Elster is looking forward to being a reliable partner for you for future innovative product solutions. Gas pressure regulation Elster range of products and services.

    Gas pressure regulation Strong in performance and quality — Elster gas pressure regulators meet the highest demands for domestic, commercial and industrial gas supply.

    Gas pressure regulators meet the highest demands concerning quality and capacity. A comprehensive range of gas pressure regulators from low pressure PN 0.

    The applications range from low-capacity residential use for individual households, commercial and industrial uses up to the field of gas transmission where it is necessary to control high flow capacities.

    A large variety of safety features is available for all of the different pressure levels. In the mediumpressure range, the devices can have integrated safety shut-off valves or relief valves.

    Separate safety shut-off valves and relief valves are also available for high-pressure applications. J42 meter service regulator The J42 is an angled type meter service regulator for low-pressure domestic applications.

    It is available with or without an integrated low-pressure cut-off valve, which has an automatic reset. J78 domestic service regulator The J78 range is a compact, accurate and economical regulator.

    It is suitable for a wide range of commercial and industrial applications, including such OEM equipment as boiler and burner trains.

    The J78 offers positive lock-up, and is available in a number of sizes. Several types are also available for angled installation directly onto the meter.

    ZR meter service regulator The ZR series of meter service regulators for low-pressure applications and for use with gas meters is available with or without an integrated lowpressure cut-off valve, which has an automatic reset.

    Installation of the NDAF type is carried out via special co-axial connectors. They are available with or without an inte-grated low-pressure cut-off valve, which has an automatic reset.

    M2R medium-pressure regulator The M2R can be used for indoor and outdoor installations. Due to the basic modular concept, it is possible to supply a large number of different con-nections and equipment features in order to meet individual cus-tomer requirements.

    The standard meter installation can be adapted by choosing from different inlet and outlet connections and can be made to suit a variety of needs, e.

    Features include: built-in safety shut-off valve offering over pressure protection, low-pressure cut-off valve with manual or automatic reset, limited capacity relief valve, safety diaphragm, optional fire resistance.

    It is a member of the MR regulator family, which is known for excellent regulation and lock-up behaviour as well as easy maintenance.

    The MR series is used in industrial or commercial applications and small stations. The regulators are available in anged and threaded versions. The MAF…E series installation is via a special co-axial connection.

    J medium-pressure regulator The J is a spring-loaded and fully inlet pressure balanced distribution and industrial regulator that can also be operated by auxiliary systems and is suitable for use as a monitor or as an active regulator.

    The J has been designed on a modular basis for in-line servicing. The JHP is available where higher outlet pressures are required.

    J medium-pressure regulator The J series provides a full range of regulators for service applications where accurate pressure control is required.

    The units are ideal for indus-trial pressure reducing, metering stations and for district distribu-tion. A monitor version is also available.

    The standard impulse is external. The devices are fitted with an integrated safety shut off valve and also have an inte-grated limited capacity relief valve.

    The device has a standard integrated safety shut-off valve SSV. Its modular design allows the regulator mechanism to be removed without disturbing the pipework.

    Routine servicing and maintenance hence may be under-taken under workshop conditions. Axial flow valve high-pressure regulator The AFV high-pressure regulator is a pilotoperated flexible element valve type for transmission, distribution and industrial use.

    The regulators are extremely compact and lightweight, easy to install and service, and provide a streamlined flow path for quiet operation.

    Axial flow valves are installed between the flanges of standard pipelines. Dependable and versa- tile, this regulator is suitable for a wide range of regulation problems.

    Manufactured from high-grade material, the series allows full inlet pressure retention in all major body and diaphragm case components.

    Also used for monitor applications or overpressure relief. S and S slam shut valves The S slam shut valve protects gas installations against dangerous overpressure or underpressure S conditions and is normally fitted on the inlet of the regulator.

    The S incorporates a visual valve position indicator. Diaphragm gas meters Elster range of products and services.

    Diaphragm gas meters Stable quality for a long service life and high level of processing — diaphragm gas meters are reliable meters for gas measurement.

    Diaphragm meters are displacement meters where the flow channels are designed to guarantee optimum flow conditions and a low pressure loss.

    The diaphragm meters BK-G 1. This allows a low-frequency pulse generator of the IN-Z61 type to be retrofitted. Also a variety of smart gas meters is available.

    This guarantees low noise, long-term stability and high accuracy, and allows the possibility of including mechanical temperature correction.

    BK-G10 to BK-G25 commercial diaphragm meters These compact meters are available in coaxial or two-pipe versions with a pressed steel housing.

    This guarantees low noise, long-term stability andhigh accuracy. Optionally the meters can be equipped with integrated temperature correction.

    The innovative new developments are based on the experience of many decades. Data transfer security is significantly increased compared with the conventional transfer of pulses, since the meter reading is recorded and transferred as an absolute value.

    For further data transmission, various communication modules with standardized interfaces are available. Chekker The Chekker index uses a two-digit, coded number to check data, which is manually read out from domestic meters.

    The combination of existing options timeand load-dependent tariffs, valve control, load profiles, communications interval control, data logging, etc.

    BK-G10 — BK-G40 is capable of directly outputting cumulative volumes using an integrated volume conversion device temperature and pressure compensation.

    This innovative Elster product has been approved as gas meter according to MID. The meter features the existing options time- and load-dependent tariffs, load profiles, communications interval control, data logging, etc.

    Industrial gas meters Elster range of products and services. Industrial gas meters Mechanical and ultrasonic flow metering — Elster offers a wide range of different measurement devices in the field of gas transport and gas distribution.

    That comprises volumetric meters like diaphragm meters and rotary meters, as well as flow meters like turbine meters and ultrasonic meters.

    Rotary gas meters Rotary gas meters are volumetric meters for gaseous media using the positive displacement principle. They record the gas volume under operating conditions.

    Electronic volume converters can be used in order to correct the volume to the standard volume. Thanks to their small dimensions, they can be used as a possible alternative to diaphragm gas meters.

    Housings made from aluminium or spheroidal graphite iron can be provided, ensuring that the meters comply with the current HTB requirements. The Absolute ENCODER index for mechanical gas meters consists of a mechanical index in which each individual digit roller is opto-electronically scanned and read out.

    The data is then continually transferred as a data word via a digital interface to a downstream device e. Quantometers are ideally used in noncustody transfer applications.

    TRZ2 turbine gas meter Elster-Instromet TRZ2 turbine gas meters are well approved and widely used within the field of gas distribution.

    They feature a patented measuring cartridge which is mounted using O-rings and is installed free of mechanical stress. It is therefore not affected by any installation effects or ambient influences.

    The TRZ2 standard version is equipped with permanently lubricated bearings and the index head. For pressure rating PN25 upwards, the manual oil pump comes as standard.

    The SM-RI-X is equipped with an oil lubrication system and a metal index head as standard; a low-cost medium frequency pickup in the index head is optionally available for all nominal sizes.

    Furthermore, the product features an extended capacity identical to the ultrasonic meter and is notable due to its significantly reduced pressure loss be - haviour.

    Data is collected on-site and is analyzed at the factory to determine meter and installation conditions. Possible outcomes of these analyses include discovering misreading due to installation effects, turbine blade damage, bearing damage and accuracy forecasts at minimum flow.

    This method has been approved by the Dutch NMi. Q and Q75 quantometers Q and Q75 quantometers are meters for non-custody transfer gas measurements and are renowned in industry and trade alike as robust and precise turbine flow meters.

    They are good value and are suitable for highly accurate and reliable measurements even in high flow and pressure ranges.

    QA and QAe quantometers QA and QAe quantometers are flow meters for non-custody transfer gas measurements that display the flow volume in actual cubic metres.

    Depending on the version, the volume is displayed on a mechanical QA or an electronic index QAe. Ultrasonic gas meters Ultrasonic gas meters have for many years been in use all over the world in the field of gas metering and have proven their reliability in the offshore sector on platforms, as well as in gas transport and gas distribution.

    Since they operate without any moving mechanical parts, they are particularly robust, require almost no maintenance and do not create any loss in pressure.

    Sonic plus ultrasonic gas meter The Q. Sonic plus multi-path ultrasonic gas meter from Elster-Instromet is ideally suited for custody transfer measurements of natural gas.

    The patented arrangement of measuring paths in conjunction with sophisticated ultrasonic sensors and digital signal processing account for maximum measurement accuracy with excellent long-term stability.

    The flow profile analysis of the Q. Sonic plus allows the otherwise conventional use of a flow conditioner to be dispensed with in many applications.

    TwinSonic plus The TwinSonic plus offers a two in one —redundant ultrasonic gas meter for custody transfer applications with an additional totally independent measurement in the same meter body for verification of the primary measurement.

    This meter combines two measurements in one meter body. The Q. Each measurement has its own independent series 6 signal processing unit SPU with color graphic touch screen display.

    CheckSonic vx ultrasonic gas meter CheckSonic vx is a multipath ultrasonic gas flow meter utilizing the most robust acoustic path configurations available to the market.

    The 6 path configuration is a fully symmetrical layout of two direct cross pairs X paths in the same plane and two diametrical axial V bounce diagnostics paths.

    This makes it the ideal measuring device for many gas metering tasks where official calibration is not required. A range of concepts is available for the various applications.

    Sonic plus achieves maximum accuracy. The CheckSonic vx , on the other hand, is the robust gas meter for measuring tasks in industry and for non-custody transfer applications.

    Calorific value measurement Calorific value measurement With the gas chromatograph EnCal and the gas-lab Q1, Elster-Instromet offers two top-quality calorific value measuring devices.

    The most up-to-date components guarantee precise analysis results in the respective fields of application. EnCal The EnCal is a gas chromatograph specially designed for fiscal measurements of energy and other properties of natural gas.

    This results in highly repeatable and highly accurate analysis results. The compact analyzer contains the analytical hardware, sample conditioning, stream selection and all required electronics for standalone operation.

    EnCal Quad For extended natural gas measurements we can extend the EnCal with a slave unit and thus expending the number of columns to a maximum of four.

    In this way the analyzer is able to measure more components in the natural gas. Solution with measurements up to dodecane are even possible.

    Also many combinations of different measurements are possible. One can think of combining heating value determination with Odorization control of the natural gas.

    Please contact your local supplier and find out that your difficult application is indeed an easy one for our Quad. The device features fast response, measures continuously and does not use a flame.

    It allows online measurements of the calorific value, Wobbe index, standard density and CO2 concentration, as well as other characteristic gas parameters which are necessary for billing and control purposes.

    The measurement system is made up of two components: an explosion-proof measuring unit and a control unit.

    The control unit can be installed up to m away from the measuring unit and is used for control, evaluation and display purposes, as well as for official data registration and communication via DSfG or Modbus interface.

    Volume converters Elster range of products and services. Volume converters The EK series offer compact battery-operated electronic volume converters suitable for use in Zone 1 hazardous areas.

    The units feature data logging functions, for which manual or automated readout options are available, using accessories.

    The layout and contents of the archives of the integrated data logger can be configured. A second pressure sensor may optionally be used to monitor the inlet or the outlet pressure of a system as well as the volume correction.

    Status signals and measurements e. Door het afsmelten steeg ook de zeespiegel. De rijzende zeespiegel haalde op plaatsen die bij de rand van de ijskap gelegen waren en daardoor het diepst naar beneden geduwd waren, de omhoogkomende bodem in waardoor deze gebieden door de zee overstroomd werden.

    Dat gebeurde terwijl het klimaat nog niet echt warm was en ook het zeewater door de grote toevoer van smeltwater van de nabijgelegen gletsjers erg koud was.

    Omdat de snelheid van de zeespiegelrijzing na verloop van tijd afnam maar de bodemrijzing nog doorging trok de zee zich plaatselijk ook weer terug.

    De periode daarna laat een afname zien van de bodemrijzing terwijl de stijging van de zeespiegel langzaam doorging. Op sommige plaatsen keerde de zee, maar nu met een 'warme' fauna weer terug.

    Op andere plaatsen die wel onder water bleven wordt de 'koude' fauna langzaam vervangen door een 'warme'.

    Weer andere plaatsen kenden alleen de koude fase en bleven daarna boven water. Welk van deze scenario's zich afspeelde was afhankelijk van waar de plaats zich ten opzichte van de ijskap bevond en hoe diep de bodem was neergeduwd.

    In deze koude zee leefde een arctische fauna die vooral door de molluskenfauna herkenbaar is. Bij lage zeespiegelstanden tijdens glacialen ligt een groot deel van de Zuidelijke Noordzee droog.

    De plek waar dat het geval was, lag bij het huidige Nauw van Calais of Straat van Dover. Geulpatronen in de bodem van het Kanaal lijken te bewijzen dat de smalle landbrug ooit catastrofaal moet zijn 'doorgebroken'.

    Het smeltwatermeer dat tijdens elk glaciaal in de Noordzee gelegen zal hebben, wordt als veroorzaker gezien. Als de Noordzijde van het meer door de landijskap geblokkeerd is, zal het stijgende smeltwater aan de zuidkant afgevoerd zijn.

    Smeltwatergeulen die zich steeds dieper en ten slotte catastrofaal hebben ingesneden in de Dover-Calais landbrug zullen de oorzaak van het ontstaan van het Nauw van Calais zijn geweest.

    Als meest waarschijnlijke periode waarin dat gebeurd zal zijn, wordt het Elsterien gezien. Het smeltwatermeer moet om dit veroorzaakt te hebben, zeer groot geweest zijn.

    Het moet Nederland voor het grootste deel bedekt hebben en ook grote delen van Noord-Duitsland. Problematisch is dat, afgezien van de potklei in de tunneldalen, geen lacustriene sedimenten uit deze periode bekend zijn.

    De theorie verklaart het ontstaan van het Nauw van Calais, maar roept allerlei vragen op die vooralsnog onbeantwoord blijven.

    De meningen van de verschillende onderzoekers zijn dan ook verdeeld over de vraag of het werkelijk zo is gegaan. Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie.

    Naamruimten Artikel Overleg. Weergaven Lezen Bewerken Brontekst bewerken Geschiedenis. Gebruikersportaal Snelcursus Hulp en contact Donaties.

    Links naar deze pagina Verwante wijzigingen Bestand uploaden Speciale pagina's Permanente koppeling Paginagegevens Deze pagina citeren Wikidata-item.

    English Koppelingen bewerken. Zie voor meer informatie het artikel isostasie Effect van ijstijden. Hasaerts , The Sangatte raised beach and the age of the opening of the Strait of Dover.

    Geologie en Mijnbouw, Packman, A. Grün , Quaternary Research, Quaternary International, Proefschrift, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden. Glacial deposits in North-West Europe.

    Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. Quaternary and Glacial Geology. John Wiley, Chichester, pp. Pre-Weichselian glaciations of North-west Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews Wansa , Elsterian and Saalian deposits in their type area in central Germany.

    In: J. Ehlers et al. Balkema, Rotterdam , The history of the great northwest European rivers during the past three million years.

    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B. The formation of the Strait of Dover. In: R,C.

    Preece ed. Europe cut adrift. Nature, Mindel-Vereisung und störzeitlicher Meeresspiegel. Meyniana, 5: Tunnel valleys. In: Ehlers, J.

    Pfeil, München. Catastrophic flooding origin of shelf valley systems in the English Channel. A first attempt to date the original "Deckenschotter" of Penck and Brückner with cosmogenic nuclides.

    Quaternary International, — 33— Geologisches Jahrbuch A, The glacial history of the Netherlands. The Saalian glaciation in the Dutch part of the North Sea.

    The type region of the Saalian and the Elsterian glaciation in the area between the rivers Saale and Elbe.

    Schirmer Ed. Aminostratigraphy of the Netherlands. International Conference, University of Cambridge, april 4th Abstracts pp.

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